Materi Kuliah Iklim di Laut

DAMPAK POTENSITeknik.dikampus.com – Materi Dampak Potensi Perubahan Iklim Di Laut disusun oleh Ma. Louella L. Dolar dan Edna R. Sabater dan diajarkan di Institute of Environment and Marine Sciences Silliman University Dumaguete City, Philippines.

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Transcript Materi Kuliah Perikanan

asia-image landsat
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF
CLIMATE CHANGE ON MARINE
MAMMAL DIVERSITY IN
SOUTHEAST ASIA

Ma. Louella L. Dolar1,2andEdna R. Sabater2

1Tropical Marine Research for Conservation (TMRC), LLC

San Diego, California, U.S.A.

2Institute of Environment and Marine Sciences

Silliman University

Dumaguete City, Philippines
Acknowledgements

CHED

ICBCC Secretariat

Dr. Angel C. Alcala

Sponsors
Photo: 150 foot deep canyon caused by meltwater
The Climate is Changing…

Global average temperature -increased

0.6oC over the 20thcentury

Predicted increase: 1.1 –6.4oC by 2100
Source: IPCC 2007

Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1
Change in global surface temperature
where-is-global-warming
http://www.climatewatch.noaa.gov/
Figure 5.1
Global Annual Heat Content of the Oceans

(0-700 m deep)

Source : IPCC 2007
Climate change impacts on the
marine environment:

PHYSICO-GEO-CHEMICAL
•Increase in water temperature
•Decrease in sea ice cover
•Rise in sea level
•Increase in CO2concentrations
•Changes in:
•salinity
•pH
•oxygen solubility
•rainfall pattern
•wave conditions
•current circulation
•storm intensity
BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS
•Distribution of organisms
•Community structure
•Prey availability and abundance
•Change in habitat use
•Timing and range in migration
•Vulnerability to diseases
and pollutants
•Reproductive success andsurvival

MARINE MAMMALS

.CARNIVORES –seals, sea lions, polar
bear, otters, walruses

.CETARTIODACTYLA –(cetaceans:
whales, dolphins & porpoises)
.SIRENIANS –dugong and manatees

Impacts on Marine
Mammals

.A. DIRECT:
.Increase in water temperature –shifts in
geographic range
.Decrease in sea-ice and rising sea level –
shrinking of habitat / habitat loss
whiskers_weddell

Impacts on marine
mammals…

B. INDIRECT

.Changes in
•abundance and distribution of prey species
•community structure (predators, competitors)
•migration patterns
•reproductive successand survival
.Increased susceptibilityto diseases and
pollutants
weddell_pup2

Water Temperature Zones

sea ice

sub-polar (<5oC)

temperate (5-20oC)

tropical to

subtropical (>20oC)

Map from World Oceans Atlas 2001
1.) Polar

sub-polar spp.

2.) Temperate

sub-temperate

spp.

3.) Tropical

sub-tropical

spp.

Current

Distribution

Expected

Shift / Expansion

From MacLeod (2009)

MARINE MAMMAL

CLASSIFICATION

(based on temp.

zones)
sample color GLOBE image
Is there evidence for shifts in geographic range?
•Salvadeo et al. 2010 –Pacific white-sided dolphins (NEPac)
•Macleod et al. 2005 –white-beaked dolphins (NW Scotland)
L%20obliquidens_wurtz
L%20albirostris_wurtz

sample color GLOBE image
?

?

?

?

?

?

?

Shift in Geographic Range

(Reviews by: Learmonth et al. 2006; MacLeod 2009)

?

?

?

?

?

?
Geographic Shift in Distribution:
(MacLeod 2009):
•88% of marine mammals will be affected
•47% -unfavorable implications
•21% -at least one population will goextinct
Photo: Leopard seal

Photo: Large iceberg in ocean
The Poles –where climate change hits first
and the hardest

Figure 4.9
..loss of sea ice, loss of habitat for the polar-

adapted species

global-temps-2009_10year

20080916_Figure1NASA_Arctic_sea_ice_540x643
NASA_End_of_February_Arctic_Sea_Ice_Age_324804main_meierfig2_full_610x851
ARCTIC

Sources:NASA, and University of Colorado/NSIDC)

http://news.cnet.com/
Photo: Beluga whales swimming underwater
d_leucas_iucn
Belugas are dependent on sea ice shelf

productivity-feeds on ice associated Arctic cod

Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas
Photo: Arctic Circle ice breaking up
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/photos/arctic-climate-change/

Photo: Arctic Circle ice breaking up
narwhal1
m_monoceros_iucn
Narwhals, Monodon monoceros
•depends on ice throughout its life-food source and protection from
predators
Photos from National Geographic

Map from CMS website
Photo: A baby walrus with its mother
Photo: A walrus mother and calf
Photo: Polar bear jumping in the Arctic
Photo: A baby harp seal rests on the Arctic ice
Other creatures of the ice: walruses, polar bears and harp seals

Photos from National Geographic
krill (Euphausia superba)

Southern right whale

blue whale and diver underwater photo
blue_whale2
“Climate change impacts the
smallest and the biggest ”

-Elliot and Simmonds, 2007

Photo: Leopard seal swimming
Photo: Large iceberg in ocean
Leopard seal

Southern right whale

Blue whale

Photos from National Geographic & Mike Johnson

ANTARCTIC

Blue whale
1805017643_8cc41753a8
Decrease in

sea ice cover

…means decrease in

haul out sites for

polar seals

crab_eater_seal
crab seal (Antarctica)

corp1514
Weddell seal
IMG_0593
spotted3-terry
HOW ABOUT IN THE TROPICSAND IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN
PARTICULAR?

Southeast Asia:

HOME TO 32 SPECIES(+ 1 sub sp.) OF
MARINE MAMMALS,
BELONGING TO 7
FAMILIES
400px-Map_of_Southeast_Asia
Southeast Asian marine mammals

27 % -strictly tropical species

46% -extend their distributions to warm

temperate waters

27% -worldwide

Southeast Asian marine mammals

27 % -strictly tropical species

46% -extend their distributions to warm

temperate waters

27% -worldwide
Warmer water species

Current

Distribution

Expected

Shift / Expansion

From MacLeod, 2009
Effects

No. of
species

%

Assessment
made by

.

14

42

.

1

3

Learmonth et al (2006)

?

18

55

Unaffected

6

18

Favorable

21

64

MacLeod (2009)

No information

6

18

Effects of Climate Change

on Marine Mammals in SEA

-Expand range

-Decrease range

? –Effect not known
.Learmonth et al(2010) and MacLeod
(2009) did not include:
.Change in sea level
.Droughts and changes in precipitation
.Storm frequency and severity (intensification of
El Niño)
.Changes is human behavior in response to
climate change

SOUTHEAST ASIA:

.Human Population = ~ 600 million
.Density (average) = 750 / km2
.65% of major cities with population of
over 2.5 million are located along the

coast
Score

No. of species

%

8

6

18

7

1

3

3

4

12

2

2

6

1

4

12

0

12

36

no information

4

12

Total (spp. + subsp.)

33

100

Assessment of Alter et al. (2010)

-incorporated the human-mediated impacts
MOST VULNERABLE ARE:

.COASTAL SPECIES
.Estuarine
.Riverine

388294
sousa180419
coastal marine mammal species in Southeast Asia

Irrawaddy dolphin

Orcaella brevirostris

Indo-Pacific Finless porpoise

Neophocaena phocaenoides

Indo-Pacific Humpback dolphin

Sousa chinensis

Dugong

Dugong dugon

Indo-Pacific bottlenose

dolphin,Tursiops aduncus

DSC_6628_resize
Omura’s whale

Balaenoptera omurai

IMG_1351edited
Photo credit: MMatillano

irrawaddyMMatillano,WWF-Phil
Photo credit: MMatillano
irrawaddy dolphin 2
Irrawaddy dolphin

-IUCN category:Vulnerable

-exclusively tied to estuaries and
freshwater systems
-shallow, coastal waters near mangroves
Photo credit: MMATILLANO/WWF-PHIL

15419

asia-image landsat
Sighting/stranding record

Critically Endangered

Populations

Sighting/stranding record

Unidentified Orcaella sp.

Distribution of Irrawaddy dolphin

Data Points obtained from Smith, 2009

85% -in Southeast Asia

58-72

125

70

77

40

<50
Iloilo Strait_Turbidity

Iloilo Strait_Salinity

IMG_1903_cropped
IMG_1432
stranded Irrawaddy dolphin on Panay
Photo Credit: E.D.Solis

MAJOR THREATS : By-catch, ship strikes, habitat destruction
14550
Indo-Pacific

Finless porpoise

finlessdolphin_zoom
-Prefer shallow waters (<50 m) in
mangrove zones
-inhabit estuaries and lower reachesof large riversPOPULATIONS THROUGHOUTTHE RANGE ARE DECLINING
IUCN Category: VULNERABLE
Sousa chinensis
Indo-pacific humpback dolphin

sousa distribution
From CMS website: mod. From Jefferson et al.,1993

sousa_chinensis_lg
+

S. Plumbeatype

S. chinensistype

IUCN Category: NEAR THREATENED

-Coastal obligate (bays, lagoons,
mangrove swamps, estuaries, ornear coral reefs)
-Shallow areas (< 20 m)
Photo credit: L. Porter
IMG_2266e-dugong- Dolar
20060607-dugong_carcass_tekong
Copy of scan0034
6909
Dugong

IUCN Category: Vulnerable
Aquino (23)
Photo credit: T.Aquino

IMG_3293edited_edited
20733
Map from IUCN Redlist website

scan0004
Map from Wang and Yang, 2009

Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphinTursiops aduncus
•lives near mangroves and reefs
Dwarf spinner dolphin
Stenella longirostris roseiventris
•lives near reefs & feeds on reef animals
Other coastal species
breach_JAcebes07
Photo credit: JMAcebes

Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae

13006

Droughts

(Intensification of El Niño)

Increased migration

To coastal areas

Decreased

River flow

COASTAL / ESTUARINE

RIVERINE CETACEANS

& DUGONGS

Increased fishing

activities,

Habitat degradation
•loss of mangroves,
seagrass, corals
•increased pollution
•increased boat traffic,
noise pollution, ship strikes
Decreased fish

abundance

•increased by-catch
•directed catch
Sea level rise

Increased salinity

in estuaries & lower

reaches of rivers

Increased Irrigation

Dam building

Intensification & increased

frequency of storms

Building of

seawalls, reclamation

areas

Increase in water

temperature

Decreased abundance

of prey (in estuaries &

rivers)

Human-mediated effects
POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF

CLIMATE CHANGE ON TROPICAL

COASTAL/ESTUARINE/RIVERINE

MARINE MAMMALS

Droughts

(Intensification of El Niño)

Increased migration

To coastal areas

Decreased

River flow

COASTAL / ESTUARINE

RIVERINE CETACEANS

& DUGONGS

Increased fishing

activities,

Habitat degradation
•loss of mangroves,
seagrass, corals
•increased pollution
•increased boat traffic,
noise pollution, ship strikes
Decreased fish

abundance

•increased by-catch
•directed catch
Sea level rise

Increased salinity

in estuaries & lower

reaches of rivers

Increased Irrigation

Dam building

Intensification & increasedfrequency of storms
Building of

seawalls, reclamation

areas

Increase in water

temperature

Decreased abundance

of prey (in estuaries &

rivers)

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF
CLIMATE CHANGE ON TROPICAL
COASTAL/ESTUARINE/RIVERINE
MARINE MAMMALSDroughts(Intensification of El Niño)
Increased migration

To coastal areas

Decreased
River flow
COASTAL / ESTUARINE

RIVERINE CETACEANS

& DUGONGS

Increased fishing

activities,

Habitat degradation
•loss of mangroves,
sea grass, corals
•increased pollution
•increased boat traffic,
noise pollution, ship strikes
Decreased fish

abundance

•increased by-catch
•directed catch
Sea level rise

Increased salinityin estuaries & lower
reaches of riversIncreased IrrigationDam building
Intensification & increased

frequency of storms

Building of

seawalls, reclamation

areas

Increase in water

temperature

Decreased abundanceof prey (in estuaries &
rivers)
POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF

CLIMATE CHANGE ON TROPICAL

COASTAL/ESTUARINE/RIVERINE

MARINE MAMMALS
Current fishery

impacts

Climate change

impacts

Deforestation
•Sedimentation
•Decreased riverflow
Coastal / Estuarine

Riverine marine

mammals

Coastal
Developments
•infrastructure
•mangrove degradation
Coastal pollution
•organic
•fertilizers
Conservation pressures on coastal / riverine

marine mammals

Existing pressures
SUMMARY

.Climate change impacts can be
substantial in tropical marine mammals.
.Greatest risk –coastal estuarine, riverine
species -may lead to extirpation of some
populations.
.There is a need to decrease current, non-
climate related stressors.
.More research to understand the ecology
of these coastal and riverine species.

ADAPT,

MOVE

OR DIE!

3281572_f496
Ice_Ages

061214-dolphin-extinct_big
Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer (Yangtze River, China)
•declared functionally extinct in 2006
Photo from National Geographic
irrawaddy dolphin 2
Photo credit: MMATILLANO/WWF-PHIL
finlessdolphin_zoom
whiskers_weddell
ANIMAL PHOTOS WEEKLY: Bubble-Blowing Beluga, More
Orcaella3
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THANK YOU ALL!

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